Physicians for Global Survival (PGS): PGS, a charitable organization formed in 1980, is the Canadian affiliate of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW), which is the only international medical organization dedicated to preventing nuclear war. PGS recognizes that the catastrophic health and environmental consequences of a nuclear war are at the extreme end of a continuum of armed violence that undermines health and security. IPPNW and PGS are committed to studying the root causes of armed conflict from a public health perspective and to educating others. PGS promotes nonviolent means of conflict resolution and social justice in a sustainable world. Through examination of the connections between nuclear weapons and nuclear energy, PGS and IPPNW are now concerned about global energy sustainability and climate change issues. For its work, IPPNW was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1985.